Religions and Economy – 3

Central Canada

Over half of Canada’s population lives in cities and towns in Central Canada, which is the centre of the country’s manufacturing and industrial activity and is situated in southern Quebec and Ontario close to the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Cold winters and hot, humid summers define the climate.

In total, more than 75% of all Canadian manufactured items are produced in Ontario and Quebec.

Nearly eight million people call Quebec home, and the majority of them reside along the St. Lawrence River. The province of Quebec is the nation’s top producer of pulp and paper, and its natural resources have helped to grow businesses including forestry, electricity, and mining. Additionally, Quebec is Canada’s top producer of hydroelectricity thanks to its abundant freshwater resources. Additionally, the province is a pioneer in cutting-edge sectors including pharmaceuticals and aviation. International acclaim is accorded to Quebec’s arts, including literature, music, movies, and cuisine, particularly within the La Francophonie, a grouping of countries that speak French. The second-largest city in Canada, Montreal, is well known for its rich cultural diversity.

The most populous province in Canada, Ontario has a population of over 12 million, making up more than one-third of the total. A successful economy is a result of the population’s diversity, strategic position, and wealth of natural resources. Canada’s largest city, Toronto, acts as the main financial hub of the nation. Many people are employed by the manufacturing and service sectors, which provide a sizeable portion of Canada’s exports. While Ontario farmers cultivate dairy and beef cattle, poultry, vegetables, and cereal crops, the Niagara region is well-known for its vineyards, wines, and fruit harvests. The majority of French speakers outside of Quebec live in Ontario, where they have a long tradition of preserving their language and culture.

Prairie Provinces

The Canadian Prairie Provinces, which include Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, are endowed with abundant energy resources and some of the world’s most productive agricultural area. This area has a primarily dry environment with chilly winters and scorching summers.

The main sectors of Manitoba’s economy include agriculture, mining, and the production of hydroelectricity. The province’s largest city, Winnipeg, is home to the well-known Portage and Main Street crossroads in the Exchange District. With a population of 45,000 Francophones, St. Boniface’s French Quarter is the biggest in Western Canada. With 14% of the population claiming Ukrainian ancestry, Manitoba is a prominent center for Ukrainian culture. It also has the highest percentage of Aboriginal people of any province—over 15%.

40% of Canada’s land is arable, and Saskatchewan, formerly known as the “breadbasket of the world” and the “wheat province,” is the nation’s top producer of grains and oilseeds. In addition, it produces oil and natural gas and has the richest uranium and potash resources in the world, both of which are used in fertilizer. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police’s training academy is located in Regina, the country’s capital. The largest city, Saskatoon, serves as both the mining industry’s headquarters and a vital hub for technology, education, and research.

Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria, is honored by the namesake of both Alberta, the most populated province in the Prairies, and Lake Louise, a famous tourist destination in the Rocky Mountains. There are five national parks in Alberta, including the 1885-founded Banff National Park. Some of the richest dinosaur and prehistoric fossil deposits in the world can be found in the rough Badlands. The oil sands in the north are being exploited as a significant energy source, and Alberta is the world’s largest producer of oil and gas. Alberta is renowned for its agricultural industry, particularly for its huge cattle ranches that help Canada become one of the major meat producers in the world.


The West Coast of Canada is dominated by British Columbia, which is famous for its stunning mountain ranges and its role as Canada’s gateway to the Pacific. The Port of Vancouver, the largest and busiest in Canada, handles billions of dollars of trade with the rest of the world. The region enjoys a temperate climate due to warm airflows from the Pacific Ocean.

British Columbia With a population of four million, British Columbia is Canada’s westernmost province. The Port of Vancouver serves as the main link between Canada and the Asia-Pacific region. Forestry products are the province’s largest industry, accounting for about half of all goods produced, including lumber, newsprint, pulp, and paper products. B.C. is also a significant player in mining, fishing, and fruit orchards, as well as the wine industry in the Okanagan Valley. With roughly 600 provincial parks, British Columbia has the most extensive park system in Canada. The province’s large Asian communities have made Chinese and Punjabi the most widely spoken languages in the cities, after English. Victoria, the capital of British Columbia, is a major tourist destination and the headquarters of the Pacific fleet of the Canadian navy.


Only 100,000 people live in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon, which make up one-third of Canada’s total land area. Mines abundant in gold, lead, copper, diamonds, and zinc can be found in these regions. Oil and gas reserves are also being developed. Due to the phenomena that daylight can extend up to 24 hours throughout the summer, the Northern Territories are frequently referred to as the “Land of the Midnight Sun.” In contrast, the sun doesn’t come out during the winter, which results in three months of darkness. These regions experience lengthy, chilly winters and brief, chilly summers. A large portion of the area is tundra, a wide, stony Arctic plain devoid of any trees and with soil that is always frozen due to the harsh Arctic environment. For some locals, hunting, fishing, and trapping are still sources of income.


Thousands of miners came to Yukon during the 1890s Gold Rush, as Robert W. Service’s poetry captures. The mining industry is still quite important to the economy. The White Pass and Yukon Railway, which was founded in 1900, connects Skagway in neighboring Alaska with Whitehorse, the territorial capital, via a breathtaking tourist adventure via cliff-hanging passes and bridges. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Canada (-63°C) was in Yukon. The highest mountain in Canada is Mount Logan, which lies in Yukon. Sir William Logan, a well-known geologist and one of Canada’s best scientists, was honored with the mountain’s name.

Territory of the Northwest

In 1870, Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory were combined to form the Northwest Territories (N.W.T.). The “diamond capital of North America” is Yellowknife, the city’s capital (population: 20,000). The indigenous Dene, Inuit, and Métis peoples make up more than half of the population. The Mackenzie River drains an area of 1.8 million square kilometers over a course of 4,200 kilometers, making it the second-longest river system in North America after the Mississippi.


A new territory called Nunavut, which in Inuktitut means “our land,” was created in 1999 from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories, which included the whole old District of Keewatin. In honor of the English explorer Martin Frobisher, who visited the Arctic in 1576, the nation’s capital is Iqaluit, originally known as Frobisher Bay. A premier and ministers are selected by the 19-member Legislative Assembly through a consensus process. Inuit make up about 85% of the population, and Inuktitut is both an official language and the main language spoken in educational institutions.