History and Economy – 5

The Fight for Canada : The War of 1812

The British Empire, which included Canada, rose to prominence as a naval force as a result of the British Empire’s victory against Napoleon Bonaparte’s fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. American discontent over British meddling with their ships resulted from the British Empire’s struggle against Bonaparte’s desire to rule Europe. The United States invaded Canada in June 1812, anticipating a straightforward triumph. However, First Nations, particularly the Shawnee under the leadership of Chief Tecumseh, and Canadian volunteers assisted British soldiers in defending Canada.

In July 1812, Major-General Sir Isaac Brock took control of Detroit; however, he perished defending against an American assault at Queenston Heights, close to the Niagara Falls. This battle was lost by the Americans. At Châteauguay, south of Montreal, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles de Salaberry and 460 soldiers, the majority of whom were French Canadians, successfully repelled 4,000 American invaders in order to save Canada. The York Parliament Buildings and Government House were destroyed by American fire that same year. (now Toronto). Major-General Robert Ross led an expedition from Nova Scotia that destroyed the White House and other government structures in Washington, D.C. as reprisal in 1814. Ross, though, was buried in Halifax with full military honors after succumbing to his injuries in battle not long after.

Dominion from Sea to Sea

The phrase “Dominion of Canada” was suggested in 1864 by Sir Leonard Tilley, a Father of Confederation and elected official from New Brunswick. The Bible’s Psalm 72, which states “dominion from sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earth,” served as an inspiration for him. The notion of building a powerful, unified, rich, and autonomous nation that would span the continent was expressed in this term. The name was used as an official title for over a century and was included in the Constitution. It is still a part of our history today.

Year       Territory Added

1867      Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick

1870      Manitoba, Northwest Territories

1871      British Columbia

1873      Prince Edward Island

1880      Transfer of the Arctic Islands (to N.W.T.)

1898      Yukon Territory

1905      Alberta, Saskatchewan

1949      Newfoundland and Labrador

1999      Nunavut


Most Canadians took great pride in being a part of the British Empire. Over 7,000 Canadians volunteered to fight in the Boer War (1899–1902); over 260 of them lost their lives. Further boosting Canadian pride were the wins at Lillefontein and Paardeberg (commonly known as “Horse Mountain”) in 1900.

The Canadian Expeditionary Force, subsequently known as the Canadian Corps, was founded in Ottawa in 1914 when Germany attacked France and Belgium and Britain declared war. More than 600,000 Canadians, the majority of whom volunteered, served in the conflict out of a total population of eight million. On the battlefield, Canadian soldiers demonstrated their tenacity and creative strategy. Canada was a part of the Western Front’s tragedy and victory.

With 10,000 killed or wounded during the seizure of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps in April 1917, the valiant character of Canadians as the “shock troops of the British Empire” was solidified. It was Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific on parade, an officer noted. I saw the formation of a nation within those brief moments. The annual Vimy Day is observed on April 9.

The D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944

During World War II, the Allies, including included Canadian forces, invaded Nazi-occupied Europe. In 1943–1944, Canadian troops were crucial to the liberation of Italy. 15,000 Canadian soldiers took part in the historic D-Day assault of Normandy in northern France on June 6, 1944, and they successfully took Juno Beach from the German Army. The picture by Orville Fisher depicts this outstanding national accomplishment. On D-Day, the proportion of Canadian soldiers was about one in ten. The Canadian Army was also essential in the liberation of the Netherlands in 1944–1945 and in bringing about Germany’s capitulation on May 8, 1945, which put an end to the six-year European War.


The Second World War officially began in 1939 with Adolf Hitler’s invasion of Poland. Canada joined forces with its democratic partners in a show of military power against tyranny. With a population of 11.5 million, 44,000 of the roughly 1 million Canadians and Newfoundlanders who fought in the conflict—Newfoundland was then a separate British territory—died in the conflict.

Although they fought bravely, the Canadians sustained casualties when defending Hong Kong from Imperial Japan in 1941 and during a botched operation on Dieppe, France, which was under Nazi control. (1942).

The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) contributed significantly to the Commonwealth’s aircrew in bombers and fighters over Europe during the Battle of Britain. With nearly 130,000 Allied aircrew trained in Canada under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, Canada also made the largest contribution of any Commonwealth nation to the Allied air effort.

Created by All Canada Quiz

History & Economy - 5

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Canadians served in 1st and 2nd world war

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British North America Act. Passed in

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3 fathers of Confederation

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Canada became a Country in

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American attempt to conquer Canada fail in

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The Duke of wellington defeated Napoleon in

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Laura Secord made a dangerous thirty (30) km journey on foot to warn of a

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In 1812

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An anti-slavery activist and the first woman Publishers in Canada

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